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Within months, she developed exceptional nonverbal communication skills and gradually learned some basic social skills , but even by the end of their case study, she still exhibited many behavioral traits characteristic of an unsocialized person.

She also continued to learn and use new language skills throughout the time they tested her, but ultimately remained unable to fully acquire a first language.

Authorities initially arranged for Genie's admission to the Children's Hospital Los Angeles , where a team of physicians and psychologists managed her care for several months.

Her subsequent living arrangements became the subject of rancorous debate. In June , she left the hospital to live with her teacher from the hospital, but a month and a half later, authorities placed her with the family of the scientist heading the research team, with whom she lived for almost four years.

Soon after turning 18, Genie returned to live with her mother, who decided after a few months that she could not adequately care for her.

Authorities then moved her into the first of what would become a series of institutions for disabled adults, and the people running it cut her off from almost everyone she knew and subjected her to extreme physical and emotional abuse.

In January , Genie's mother forbade all scientific observations and testing of Genie. Little is known about her circumstances since then. Her current whereabouts are uncertain, although she is believed to be living in the care of the state of California.

In particular, scientists have compared Genie to Victor of Aveyron , a 19th-century French child who was also the subject of a case study in delayed psychological development and late language acquisition.

Genie was the last, and second surviving, of four children born to parents living in Arcadia, California. Her father worked in a factory as a flight mechanic during World War II and continued in aviation afterward, and her mother, who was around 20 years younger and from an Oklahoma farming family, had come to southern California as a teenager with family friends fleeing the Dust Bowl.

Genie's father mostly grew up in orphanages in the American Pacific Northwest. His father died of a lightning strike, and his mother ran a brothel while only infrequently seeing him.

Additionally, his mother gave him a feminine first name which made him the target of constant derision. As a result, he harbored extreme resentment toward his mother during childhood, which Genie's brother and the scientists who studied Genie believed was the root cause of his subsequent anger problems.

When Genie's father reached adulthood he changed his first name to one which was more typically masculine, and his mother began to spend as much time with him as she could.

He became almost singularly fixated on his mother, despite relentless arguments over her attempts to convince him to adopt a less rigid lifestyle, and therefore came to treat all other relationships as secondary at best.

Genie's father disliked children and wanted none of his own, finding them noisy, but around five years into their marriage his wife became pregnant.

Although he beat his wife throughout the pregnancy, and near the end attempted to strangle her to death, she gave birth to an apparently healthy daughter.

Her father found her cries disturbing and placed her in the garage, where she caught pneumonia and died at the age of ten weeks.

His father forced his wife to keep him quiet, causing significant physical and linguistic developmental delays. When he reached the age of four his maternal grandmother grew concerned about his development and took over his care for several months, and he made good progress with her before she eventually returned him to his parents.

Genie was born about five years after her brother, around the time that her father began to isolate himself and his family from all other people.

The following day she showed signs of Rh incompatibility and required a blood transfusion , but had no sequelae and was otherwise described as healthy.

The splint caused Genie to be late to walk, and researchers believed this led her father to start speculating that she was mentally retarded.

As a result, he made a concentrated effort not to talk to or pay attention to her, and strongly discouraged his wife and son from doing so as well.

There is little information about Genie's early life, but available records indicate that for her first months she displayed relatively normal development.

Genie's mother later recalled that Genie was not a cuddly baby, did not babble much, and resisted solid food. Researchers never determined which was the truth.

At the age of 11 months Genie was still in overall good health and had no noted mental abnormalities, but had fallen to the 11th percentile for weight.

The people who later studied her believed this was a sign that she was starting to suffer some degree of malnutrition. The pediatrician said that, although her illness prevented a definitive diagnosis, there was a possibility that she was mentally retarded and that the brain dysfunction kernicterus might be present, further amplifying her father's conclusion that she was severely retarded.

Six months later, when Genie was 20 months old, her paternal grandmother died in a hit-and-run traffic accident. Her death affected Genie's father far beyond normal levels of grief, and because his son had been walking with her he held his son responsible, further heightening his anger.

Scientists believed these events made him feel society had failed him and convinced him he would need to protect his family from the outside world, but in doing so he lacked the self-awareness to recognize the destruction his actions caused.

Because he believed Genie was severely retarded he thought she needed him to protect her even further, and therefore chose to hide her existence as far as possible.

Upon moving, Genie's father increasingly confined Genie to the second bedroom in the back of the house while the rest of the family slept in the living room.

While in the harness, she wore only diapers and could only move her extremities. Researchers concluded that, if Genie vocalized or made any other noise, her father beat her with a large plank that he kept in her room.

If he suspected her of doing something he did not like, he made these noises outside the door and beat her if he believed she had continued to do it, instilling an extremely intense and persistent fear of cats and dogs in Genie.

No one definitively discerned the exact reason for his dog-like behavior, although at least one scientist speculated he may have viewed himself as a guard dog and was acting out the role.

Genie developed a tendency to masturbate in socially inappropriate contexts, which led doctors to seriously consider the possibility that Genie's father subjected her to sexual abuse or forced her brother to do so, although they never uncovered any definite evidence.

Genie's father fed Genie as little as possible and refused to give her solid food, feeding her only baby food, cereal, Pablum , an occasional soft-boiled egg, and liquids.

Her father, or when coerced, her brother, spooned food into her mouth as quickly as possible, and if she choked or could not swallow fast enough the person feeding her rubbed her face in her food.

Genie's mother claimed her husband always fed Genie three times a day but also said that Genie sometimes risked a beating by making noise when hungry, leading researchers to believe he often refused to feed her.

This sleep pattern continued for several months after being taken away from her father. Genie's father had an extremely low tolerance for noise , to the point of refusing to have a working television or radio in the house.

He almost never allowed his wife or son to talk and viciously beat them if they did so without permission, particularly forbidding them to speak to or around Genie.

Any conversation between them was therefore very quiet and out of Genie's earshot, preventing her from hearing any meaningful amount of language.

On rare occasions he allowed Genie to play with plastic food containers, old spools of thread, TV Guides with many of the illustrations cut out, and the raincoats.

Throughout this time, Genie's father almost never permitted anyone else to leave the house, only allowing his son to go to and from school and requiring him to prove his identity through various means before entering, and to discourage disobedience he frequently sat in the living room with a shotgun in his lap.

He did not allow anyone else in or near the house, and kept his gun nearby in case someone did come. Genie's mother was passive by nature and almost completely blind throughout this time.

Her husband continued to beat her and threatened to kill her if she attempted to contact her parents, close friends who lived nearby, or the police.

In October , when Genie was approximately 13 years and six months old, Genie's parents had a violent argument in which her mother threatened to walk out if she could not call her own parents.

Her husband eventually relented, and later that day she left with Genie when he was out of the house and went to her parents in Monterey Park ; Genie's brother, by then 18, had already run away from home and was living with friends.

Genie's parents were arrested and Genie became a ward of the court , and due to her physical condition and near-total unsocialized state a court order was immediately issued for Genie to be taken to the Children's Hospital Los Angeles.

Upon Genie's admission to Children's Hospital, David Rigler, a therapist and University of Southern California psychology professor who was the chief psychologist at the hospital, and Howard Hansen, then the head of the psychiatry division and an early expert on child abuse, took direct control of Genie's care.

The following day they assigned physician James Kent, another early advocate for child abuse awareness, to conduct the first examinations of her.

Even after its conclusion, there were a large number of unresolved questions about Genie's childhood that subsequent research never answered.

News of Genie reached major media outlets on November 17, receiving a great deal of local and national attention, and the one photograph authorities released of Genie significantly fueled public interest in her.

On November 20, the morning before a scheduled court appearance on child abuse charges, he committed suicide by gunshot.

One note—sources conflict as to which—contained the declaration, "The world will never understand. After Genie's father committed suicide, authorities and hospital staff exclusively focused on Genie and her mother; years later Genie's brother said his mother soon began dedicating all of her love and attention to Genie, after which he left the Los Angeles area.

She told the court that the beatings from her husband and her near-total blindness had left her unable to protect her children.

James Kent stated that his initial examinations of Genie revealed by far the most severe case of child abuse he would ever encounter, and he came away extremely pessimistic about Genie's prognosis.

She had two nearly full sets of teeth in her mouth and a distended abdomen. Genie's gross motor skills were extremely weak; she could neither stand up straight nor fully straighten any of her limbs, and had very little endurance.

Doctors found it extremely difficult to test or estimate Genie's mental age or any of her cognitive abilities, but on two attempts they found Genie scored at the level of a month-old.

She seemed especially curious about unfamiliar sounds, and Kent noted how intently she searched for their sources.

From the start Genie showed interest in many hospital staff members, often approaching and walking with complete strangers, but Kent said she did not seem to distinguish between people and showed no signs of attachment to anybody, including her mother and brother.

Genie's behavior was typically highly antisocial and proved extremely difficult for others to control. Regardless of where she was she constantly salivated and spat, and continually sniffed and blew her nose on anything that happened to be nearby.

Doctors wrote that she acted on impulse irrespective of the setting, especially noting that she frequently engaged in open masturbation and would sometimes attempt to involve older men in it.

From the start Genie showed a small amount of responsiveness to nonverbal information, including gestures and facial expressions from other people, and made reasonably good eye contact.

To make noise, she would push chairs or other similar objects. Linguists later discerned that, in January , Genie showed an understanding of only her own name, the names of a few others, and about 15—20 words, and her active vocabulary at the time consisted of two phrases, "stop it" and "no more".

They could not determine the extent of her expressive or receptive vocabulary at any point before January , and therefore did not know whether she had acquired any or all of these words during the preceding two months.

Within a month after Genie's admission to Children's Hospital, Jay Shurley, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the University of Oklahoma and a specialist in extreme social isolation, took an interest in her case.

Shurley noted that Genie's was the most severe case of isolation he had ever studied or heard about, which he maintained more than 20 years later.

Shurley found no signs of brain damage but observed a few persistent abnormalities in Genie's sleep, including a significantly reduced amount of REM sleep with a variance in duration much larger than average, and an unusually high number of sleep spindles bursts of rhythmic or repetitive neural activity.

Much later, for example, Susan Curtiss emphatically argued that, though Genie clearly had serious emotional difficulties, she could not have been retarded.

She pointed out that Genie made a year's developmental progress for every calendar year after her rescue, which would not be expected if her condition was congenital, and that some aspects of language Genie acquired were uncharacteristic of mentally retarded people.

In his first meeting with Genie, James Kent initially observed no reactions from her but eventually drew a small amount of nonverbal and verbal responsiveness with a small puppet.

Playing with this and similar puppets quickly became her favorite activity and, apart from her tantrums, accounted for most of the few times she expressed any emotion during the early part of her stay.

Genie quickly began growing and putting on weight, and steadily became more confident in her movements. By December, she had good eye—hand coordination and was much better at focusing her eyes.

During the first few months of her stay, giving her one of these objects could bring her out of a tantrum. After a few weeks Genie became much more responsive to other people, and shortly afterward began paying attention to people speaking, but at first she remained mostly unexpressive and it was unclear whether she responded more to verbal or nonverbal stimuli.

Around the same time it was noted that Genie took pleasure in intentionally dropping or destroying small objects, and enjoyed watching someone else do the same to something she had been playing with.

She did not have the same reaction to recordings, and if someone played anything other than classical music she would change the sheet music to a book which she knew had pieces she liked.

By December , Kent and the other hospital staff working with Genie saw her as a potential case study subject.

That month David Rigler obtained a small grant from the National Institute of Mental Health NIMH to do preliminary studies on her, and began organizing a research team to submit a larger request.

Around the same time, doctors noted that she was very interested in people speaking and that she attempted to mimic some speech sounds.

By April and May , Genie's scores on the Leiter International Performance Scale tests had dramatically increased, with her overall mental age at the level of a typical 4-yearmonth-old, but on individual components she still showed a very high level of scatter.

However, she still had a hard time being with large crowds of people; at her birthday party, she became so anxious at all the guests present that she had to go outside with Rigler to calm down.

During the later part of Genie's stay at the hospital, she also started engaging in physical play with adults, and eventually began to enjoy giving and receiving hugs.

This was both her first exhibition of a sense of possession over items she thought were hers but was otherwise impartial towards and the first time she directed her anger outwards, but she did not entirely stop harming herself when angry.

Beginning in January scientists conducted a series of neurolinguistic tests on Genie to determine and monitor the course and extent of her mental development, making her the first language-deprived child to undergo any detailed study of her brain.

Over the following years multiple tests of her handedness supported this conclusion, as did observations of her in everyday situations. Such an extreme level of asymmetry on these tests had previously only been documented in patients with either split-brain or who had undergone a hemispherectomy as an adult.

On non-language dichotic listening tests, she showed a slight preference for identifying non-language sounds in her left ear, which was typical for a right-handed person and helped rule out the possibility of her brain only being reversed in dominance for language.

Based on these results, Bellugi and Klima believed that Genie had been developing as a typical right-handed person until the time her father began isolating her.

They attributed the imbalance between Genie's hemispheres to the fact that Genie's sensory input as a child was almost exclusively visual and tactile, stimulating functions which are predominantly controlled in the right hemisphere of a right-handed person, and although this input had been extremely minimal it was sufficient to cause their lateralization to the right hemisphere.

Since Genie accurately distinguished speech sounds with her right hemisphere, they thought her language functions had lateralized there instead.

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The people who later studied her believed this was a sign that she was starting to suffer some degree of malnutrition.

The pediatrician said that, although her illness prevented a definitive diagnosis, there was a possibility that she was mentally retarded and that the brain dysfunction kernicterus might be present, further amplifying her father's conclusion that she was severely retarded.

Six months later, when Genie was 20 months old, her paternal grandmother died in a hit-and-run traffic accident.

Her death affected Genie's father far beyond normal levels of grief, and because his son had been walking with her he held his son responsible, further heightening his anger.

Scientists believed these events made him feel society had failed him and convinced him he would need to protect his family from the outside world, but in doing so he lacked the self-awareness to recognize the destruction his actions caused.

Because he believed Genie was severely retarded he thought she needed him to protect her even further, and therefore chose to hide her existence as far as possible.

Upon moving, Genie's father increasingly confined Genie to the second bedroom in the back of the house while the rest of the family slept in the living room.

While in the harness, she wore only diapers and could only move her extremities. Researchers concluded that, if Genie vocalized or made any other noise, her father beat her with a large plank that he kept in her room.

If he suspected her of doing something he did not like, he made these noises outside the door and beat her if he believed she had continued to do it, instilling an extremely intense and persistent fear of cats and dogs in Genie.

No one definitively discerned the exact reason for his dog-like behavior, although at least one scientist speculated he may have viewed himself as a guard dog and was acting out the role.

Genie developed a tendency to masturbate in socially inappropriate contexts, which led doctors to seriously consider the possibility that Genie's father subjected her to sexual abuse or forced her brother to do so, although they never uncovered any definite evidence.

Genie's father fed Genie as little as possible and refused to give her solid food, feeding her only baby food, cereal, Pablum , an occasional soft-boiled egg, and liquids.

Her father, or when coerced, her brother, spooned food into her mouth as quickly as possible, and if she choked or could not swallow fast enough the person feeding her rubbed her face in her food.

Genie's mother claimed her husband always fed Genie three times a day but also said that Genie sometimes risked a beating by making noise when hungry, leading researchers to believe he often refused to feed her.

This sleep pattern continued for several months after being taken away from her father. Genie's father had an extremely low tolerance for noise , to the point of refusing to have a working television or radio in the house.

He almost never allowed his wife or son to talk and viciously beat them if they did so without permission, particularly forbidding them to speak to or around Genie.

Any conversation between them was therefore very quiet and out of Genie's earshot, preventing her from hearing any meaningful amount of language.

On rare occasions he allowed Genie to play with plastic food containers, old spools of thread, TV Guides with many of the illustrations cut out, and the raincoats.

Throughout this time, Genie's father almost never permitted anyone else to leave the house, only allowing his son to go to and from school and requiring him to prove his identity through various means before entering, and to discourage disobedience he frequently sat in the living room with a shotgun in his lap.

He did not allow anyone else in or near the house, and kept his gun nearby in case someone did come. Genie's mother was passive by nature and almost completely blind throughout this time.

Her husband continued to beat her and threatened to kill her if she attempted to contact her parents, close friends who lived nearby, or the police.

In October , when Genie was approximately 13 years and six months old, Genie's parents had a violent argument in which her mother threatened to walk out if she could not call her own parents.

Her husband eventually relented, and later that day she left with Genie when he was out of the house and went to her parents in Monterey Park ; Genie's brother, by then 18, had already run away from home and was living with friends.

Genie's parents were arrested and Genie became a ward of the court , and due to her physical condition and near-total unsocialized state a court order was immediately issued for Genie to be taken to the Children's Hospital Los Angeles.

Upon Genie's admission to Children's Hospital, David Rigler, a therapist and University of Southern California psychology professor who was the chief psychologist at the hospital, and Howard Hansen, then the head of the psychiatry division and an early expert on child abuse, took direct control of Genie's care.

The following day they assigned physician James Kent, another early advocate for child abuse awareness, to conduct the first examinations of her.

Even after its conclusion, there were a large number of unresolved questions about Genie's childhood that subsequent research never answered.

News of Genie reached major media outlets on November 17, receiving a great deal of local and national attention, and the one photograph authorities released of Genie significantly fueled public interest in her.

On November 20, the morning before a scheduled court appearance on child abuse charges, he committed suicide by gunshot. One note—sources conflict as to which—contained the declaration, "The world will never understand.

After Genie's father committed suicide, authorities and hospital staff exclusively focused on Genie and her mother; years later Genie's brother said his mother soon began dedicating all of her love and attention to Genie, after which he left the Los Angeles area.

She told the court that the beatings from her husband and her near-total blindness had left her unable to protect her children. James Kent stated that his initial examinations of Genie revealed by far the most severe case of child abuse he would ever encounter, and he came away extremely pessimistic about Genie's prognosis.

She had two nearly full sets of teeth in her mouth and a distended abdomen. Genie's gross motor skills were extremely weak; she could neither stand up straight nor fully straighten any of her limbs, and had very little endurance.

Doctors found it extremely difficult to test or estimate Genie's mental age or any of her cognitive abilities, but on two attempts they found Genie scored at the level of a month-old.

She seemed especially curious about unfamiliar sounds, and Kent noted how intently she searched for their sources.

From the start Genie showed interest in many hospital staff members, often approaching and walking with complete strangers, but Kent said she did not seem to distinguish between people and showed no signs of attachment to anybody, including her mother and brother.

Genie's behavior was typically highly antisocial and proved extremely difficult for others to control. Regardless of where she was she constantly salivated and spat, and continually sniffed and blew her nose on anything that happened to be nearby.

Doctors wrote that she acted on impulse irrespective of the setting, especially noting that she frequently engaged in open masturbation and would sometimes attempt to involve older men in it.

From the start Genie showed a small amount of responsiveness to nonverbal information, including gestures and facial expressions from other people, and made reasonably good eye contact.

To make noise, she would push chairs or other similar objects. Linguists later discerned that, in January , Genie showed an understanding of only her own name, the names of a few others, and about 15—20 words, and her active vocabulary at the time consisted of two phrases, "stop it" and "no more".

They could not determine the extent of her expressive or receptive vocabulary at any point before January , and therefore did not know whether she had acquired any or all of these words during the preceding two months.

Within a month after Genie's admission to Children's Hospital, Jay Shurley, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the University of Oklahoma and a specialist in extreme social isolation, took an interest in her case.

Shurley noted that Genie's was the most severe case of isolation he had ever studied or heard about, which he maintained more than 20 years later.

Shurley found no signs of brain damage but observed a few persistent abnormalities in Genie's sleep, including a significantly reduced amount of REM sleep with a variance in duration much larger than average, and an unusually high number of sleep spindles bursts of rhythmic or repetitive neural activity.

Much later, for example, Susan Curtiss emphatically argued that, though Genie clearly had serious emotional difficulties, she could not have been retarded.

She pointed out that Genie made a year's developmental progress for every calendar year after her rescue, which would not be expected if her condition was congenital, and that some aspects of language Genie acquired were uncharacteristic of mentally retarded people.

In his first meeting with Genie, James Kent initially observed no reactions from her but eventually drew a small amount of nonverbal and verbal responsiveness with a small puppet.

Playing with this and similar puppets quickly became her favorite activity and, apart from her tantrums, accounted for most of the few times she expressed any emotion during the early part of her stay.

Genie quickly began growing and putting on weight, and steadily became more confident in her movements. By December, she had good eye—hand coordination and was much better at focusing her eyes.

During the first few months of her stay, giving her one of these objects could bring her out of a tantrum. After a few weeks Genie became much more responsive to other people, and shortly afterward began paying attention to people speaking, but at first she remained mostly unexpressive and it was unclear whether she responded more to verbal or nonverbal stimuli.

Around the same time it was noted that Genie took pleasure in intentionally dropping or destroying small objects, and enjoyed watching someone else do the same to something she had been playing with.

She did not have the same reaction to recordings, and if someone played anything other than classical music she would change the sheet music to a book which she knew had pieces she liked.

By December , Kent and the other hospital staff working with Genie saw her as a potential case study subject. That month David Rigler obtained a small grant from the National Institute of Mental Health NIMH to do preliminary studies on her, and began organizing a research team to submit a larger request.

Around the same time, doctors noted that she was very interested in people speaking and that she attempted to mimic some speech sounds.

By April and May , Genie's scores on the Leiter International Performance Scale tests had dramatically increased, with her overall mental age at the level of a typical 4-yearmonth-old, but on individual components she still showed a very high level of scatter.

However, she still had a hard time being with large crowds of people; at her birthday party, she became so anxious at all the guests present that she had to go outside with Rigler to calm down.

During the later part of Genie's stay at the hospital, she also started engaging in physical play with adults, and eventually began to enjoy giving and receiving hugs.

This was both her first exhibition of a sense of possession over items she thought were hers but was otherwise impartial towards and the first time she directed her anger outwards, but she did not entirely stop harming herself when angry.

Beginning in January scientists conducted a series of neurolinguistic tests on Genie to determine and monitor the course and extent of her mental development, making her the first language-deprived child to undergo any detailed study of her brain.

Over the following years multiple tests of her handedness supported this conclusion, as did observations of her in everyday situations.

Such an extreme level of asymmetry on these tests had previously only been documented in patients with either split-brain or who had undergone a hemispherectomy as an adult.

On non-language dichotic listening tests, she showed a slight preference for identifying non-language sounds in her left ear, which was typical for a right-handed person and helped rule out the possibility of her brain only being reversed in dominance for language.

Based on these results, Bellugi and Klima believed that Genie had been developing as a typical right-handed person until the time her father began isolating her.

They attributed the imbalance between Genie's hemispheres to the fact that Genie's sensory input as a child was almost exclusively visual and tactile, stimulating functions which are predominantly controlled in the right hemisphere of a right-handed person, and although this input had been extremely minimal it was sufficient to cause their lateralization to the right hemisphere.

Since Genie accurately distinguished speech sounds with her right hemisphere, they thought her language functions had lateralized there instead.

At the time of Genie's admission to Children's Hospital there was wide discussion in both lay and academic circles about the hypotheses of Noam Chomsky , who had first suggested that language was innate to humans and distinguishes humans from all other animals, and Eric Lenneberg , who in hypothesized that humans have a critical period for language acquisition and defined its end as the onset of puberty.

Though ancient and medieval texts made several references to language deprivation experiments modern researchers labeled such ideas "The Forbidden Experiment", impossible to carry out for ethical reasons.

The movie was a major success, and further heightened public interest in cases of children subjected to extreme abuse or isolation. Prompted by this coincidence of timing, David Rigler led a team of scientists who sought and obtained a three-year grant from the NIMH to study Genie in May At the suggestion of Jean Butler, Genie's special education teacher at the hospital, they screened The Wild Child during their first meeting, and the scientists later said the film had an immediate and profound impact.

To the surprise of several scientists involved in the grant meetings, Rigler decided the primary focus of the study would be to test Chomsky and Lenneberg's hypotheses and selected UCLA linguistics professor Victoria Fromkin to head linguistic evaluation.

From the time of her admission to Children's Hospital researchers had tried to keep her identity concealed, and it was around this time that they adopted the pseudonym Genie for her, referencing similarities between a genie coming out of a lamp without having a childhood and Genie's sudden emergence into society past childhood.

Soon after the NIMH accepted the grant proposal, in late May , Susan Curtiss began her work on Genie's case as a graduate student in linguistics under Victoria Fromkin, and for the remainder of Genie's stay at Children's Hospital Curtiss met with Genie almost every day.

Over the following month, she and Genie very quickly bonded with each other. At around the same time Curtiss began her work, doctors reevaluated Genie on the Leiter scale and measured her on the Stanford—Binet Intelligence Scale , which placed her estimated mental age between a 5- and 8-year-old with a very high degree of scatter.

Near the end of that month, after one of these trips, Butler told the hospital that she Butler might have contracted rubella , to which Genie would have been exposed.

Hospital staff were reluctant to give foster custody to Butler and were very skeptical of her story, strongly suspecting she had concocted it as part of a bid to take over as Genie's guardian and primary caretaker, but decided that placing Genie in an isolation ward at the hospital could potentially be highly damaging to her social and psychological development, so they agreed to temporarily quarantine her in Butler's home.

Soon after moving in with Butler, Genie started showing the first signs of reaching puberty , marking a dramatic improvement in her overall physical health and definitively putting her past Lenneberg's proposed critical period for language acquisition.

Butler wrote that Genie could eventually tolerate fenced dogs, but that there was no progress with cats. In her journal, Butler wrote that she had gotten Genie to stop attacking herself when angry and had taught Genie to instead express her anger through words or by hitting objects.

Butler also claimed that, shortly after moving in with her, Genie had become noticeably more talkative and that she had made substantial progress with her language acquisition.

Genie's incontinence gradually improved until, by the end of her stay, she was almost entirely continent.

Genie's mother continued to visit Genie, and around the time Genie moved in with Butler, Genie's mother received corrective cataract surgery which restored much of her vision.

During Genie's stay, Butler had the man she was dating move in with her, believing that authorities would view her pending foster application more favorably if she offered a two-parent home.

Researchers believed Butler had good intentions for Genie, but criticized Butler's unwillingness to work with them and thought she negatively affected Genie's care and the case study.

They strongly contested Butler's claims of pushing Genie too hard, contending that she enjoyed the tests and could take breaks at will, and both Curtiss and Kent emphatically denied Butler's accusations towards them.

In mid-August, California authorities informed Butler they had rejected her application for foster custody. Rigler maintained several times that despite the scientists' objections neither the hospital nor any of its staff had intervened, and said the authorities' decision surprised him.

In early August, Hansen suggested to Rigler that he take custody of Genie if authorities rejected Butler's application, and Rigler initially balked at the idea but decided to talk it over with his wife, Marilyn; Marilyn had graduate training as a social worker and had just completed a graduate degree in human development , and had previously worked in nursery schools and Head Start Programs.

The Riglers had three adolescent children of their own, which Jay Shurley later said made them consider themselves more suitable guardians for Genie than Butler.

Rigler acknowledged the proposed arrangement would clearly put him in a dual relationship with her, but Children's Hospital and authorities decided that, in the absence of other adequate options, they would consent to make the Riglers Genie's temporary foster parents.

On the same day, Genie went back to the hospital, the Riglers had Genie transferred to their home in Los Feliz. David Rigler said that he and Marilyn initially intended the arrangement to last for a maximum of three months, but Genie ultimately stayed with them for almost four years.

While Genie lived with the Riglers her mother usually met with her once a week at a park or restaurant, and their relationship continued to grow stronger.

With the exception of Jay Shurley, who later said he felt the other scientists did not treat her as an equal, Genie's mother did not get along well with the other researchers, some of whom disliked her due to her apathy during Genie's childhood.

Jean Butler, who married shortly after authorities removed Genie from her house and began using her married name, Ruch, stayed in touch with Genie's mother.

Although Genie's mother later recalled that most of their conversations during this time were shallow in nature, they continued to get along very well.

Without any obvious cause, Genie's incontinence immediately resurfaced, and was especially severe for the first few weeks after she moved in but persisted at a lower level for several months.

They also wrote that Genie was extremely frightened of their dog, and upon seeing it for the first time she immediately ran and hid.

The research team recorded her speech being much more halting and hesitant than Ruch had described, writing that Genie very rarely spoke and that, for the first three months of her stay, almost always used one-word utterances.

She continued to have a very difficult time controlling her impulses, frequently engaging in highly anti-social and destructive behavior.

Shortly after Genie moved in, Marilyn taught her to direct her frustrations outward by generally "having a fit. Although the scientists did not yet know the reason for Genie's fear of cats and dogs the Riglers used their puppy in an effort to acclimate her, and after approximately two weeks she entirely overcame her fear of their dog but continued to be extremely afraid of unfamiliar cats and dogs.

Marilyn worked with Genie to help overcome her ongoing difficulty with chewing and swallowing, which took approximately four months. She also tried to help Genie become more attuned to her body's sensations, and in late Curtiss recorded the first instance of Genie showing sensitivity to temperature.

At first, Genie usually did not listen to anyone unless someone directly addressed her or if Curtiss played classical music on the piano, and if someone spoke to her she almost never acknowledged the other person and usually walked away after a while.

After that, she paid attention to people even when they were not speaking directly to or about her. She became somewhat more sociable in her interactions with people and became somewhat more responsive, although she still frequently showed no obvious signs that she heard someone.

After several months living with the Riglers, Genie's behavior and social skills improved to the point that she started going to first a nursery school and then a public school for mentally retarded children her age.

During the time Genie lived with the Riglers, everyone who worked with her reported that her mood significantly improved and she was clearly content with her life.

The scientists wrote that, while her overall demeanor and interactions with others had significantly improved, many aspects of her behavior remained characteristic of an unsocialized person.

Curtiss began thorough, active testing of Genie's language in October , when she and Fromkin decided that her linguistic abilities were sufficient to yield usable results.

Linguists designed their tests to measure both Genie's vocabulary and her acquisition of various aspects of grammar , including syntax , phonology , and morphology.

They also continued to observe her in everyday conversations to gauge what pragmatics of language she acquired. The research team considered her language acquisition to be a substantial part of their larger goal of helping her to integrate herself into society, so although they wanted to observe what vocabulary and grammar Genie could learn on her own, out of a sense of obligation they sometimes stepped in to assist her.

Throughout linguists' testing, the size of Genie's vocabulary and the speed with which she expanded it continued to outstrip all anticipations.

By mid she could accurately name most objects she encountered, and clearly knew more words than she regularly used.

She clearly mastered certain principles of grammar, and her receptive comprehension consistently remained significantly ahead of her production, but the rate of her grammar acquisition was far slower than normal and resulted in an unusually large disparity between her vocabulary and grammar.

In many cases, the scientists used Genie's language development to help them gauge her overall psychological state.

For instance, Genie consistently confused the pronouns you and me , often saying, "Mama love you" while pointing to herself, which Curtiss attributed to a manifestation of Genie's inability to distinguish who she was from who someone else was.

At the time Genie learned to say "May I have [example]" as a ritual phrase she was also learning how to use money, and Curtiss wrote that this phrase gave Genie the ability to ask for payment and fueled her desire to make money, causing her to take a more active role in performing activities which would lead to a reward.

At the start of testing Genie's voice was still extremely high-pitched and soft, which linguists believed accounted for some of her abnormal expressive language, and the scientists worked very hard to improve it.

Despite this she consistently deleted or substituted sounds, making her extremely difficult to understand.

The scientists believed Genie was often unaware of her pronunciation, but on other occasions, she produced haplologies which were clearly intentional and would only speak more clearly if firmly, explicitly requested to; Curtiss attributed the latter to Genie trying to say as little as possible and still be understood.

Papers contemporaneous with the case study indicated that Genie was learning new vocabulary and grammar throughout her entire stay with the Riglers, and were optimistic about her potential to varying degrees.

Furthermore, although she could understand and produce longer utterances, she still primarily spoke in short phrases such as "Ball belong hospital".

Curtiss and Fromkin ultimately concluded that because Genie had not learned a first language before the critical period had ended, she was unable to fully acquire a language.

Sometime during early to mid, the Riglers overheard Genie saying, "Father hit big stick. Father is angry. Father hit arm.

Big wood. Genie cry Not spit. Hit face—spit. Father hit big stick. Father hit Genie big stick. Father take piece wood hit.

Father make me cry. Father is dead. In contrast to her linguistic abilities, Genie's nonverbal communication continued to excel. She invented her own system of gestures and pantomimed certain words as she said them, and also acted out events which she could not express in language.

Throughout Genie's stay the scientists saw how frequently and effectively she used her nonverbal skills, and never determined what she did to elicit such strong reactions from other people.

Curtiss also recalled one time when, while she and Genie were walking and had stopped at a busy intersection, she unexpectedly heard a purse emptying; she turned to see a woman stop at the intersection and exit her car to give Genie a plastic purse, even though Genie had not said anything.

Starting in the fall of , under the direction of Curtiss, Victoria Fromkin, and Stephen Krashen —who was then also one of Fromkin's graduate students—linguists continued to administer regular dichotic listening tests to Genie until Their results consistently corroborated the initial findings of Ursula Bellugi and Edward Klima.

Linguists also administered several brain exams specifically geared towards measuring Genie's language comprehension. On one such test, she had no difficulty giving the correct meaning of sentences containing familiar homophones , demonstrating that her receptive comprehension was significantly better than her expressive language.

Genie also did very well at identifying rhymes , both tasks that adult split-brain and left hemispherectomy patients had previously been recorded performing well on.

Curtiss, Fromkin, and Krashen continued to measure Genie's mental age through a variety of measures, and she consistently showed an extremely high degree of scatter.

She measured significantly higher on tests which did not require language, such as the Leiter Scale, than on tests with any kind of language component, such as the verbal section of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test.

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