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Among all these people are the Chinese whose numbers here are untold and who outnumber everyone else. From China there are peoples so different from each other, and from provinces as distant, as Italy is from Spain.

Finally, of the mestizos , the mixed-race people here, I cannot even write because in Manila there is no limit to combinations of peoples with peoples.

This is in the city where all the buzz is. After Mexico gained independence in , Spain began to govern Manila directly. The city's growing wealth and education attracted indigenous peoples, Negritos, Malays, Africans, Chinese, Indians, Arabs, Europeans, Latinos and Papuans from the surrounding provinces [62] and facilitated the rise of an ilustrado class that espoused liberal ideas: the ideological foundations of the Philippine Revolution , which sought independence from Spain.

A revolt by Andres Novales was inspired by the Latin American wars of independence. Following the Cavite Mutiny and the Propaganda Movement , the Philippine revolution eventually erupted, Manila was among the first eight provinces to rebel and thus their role was immortalized in the Philippine Flag where Manila was marked as one of the eight rays of the symbolic sun.

The First Philippine Republic , based in nearby Bulacan , fought against the Americans for control of the city. Upon drafting a new charter for Manila in June , the Americans made official what had long been tacit: that the city of Manila consisted not of Intramuros alone but also of the surrounding areas.

Later, two more would be added: Balut and San Andres. The Philippine Capitol was to rise at the Taft Avenue end of the field, facing toward the sea.

Of Burnham's proposed government center, only three units—the Legislative Building and the buildings of the Finance and Agricultural Departments—were completed when World War II erupted.

During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines , American soldiers were ordered to withdraw from Manila, and all military installations were removed on December 24, General Douglas MacArthur declared Manila an open city to prevent further death and destruction, but Japanese warplanes continued to bomb it.

Manila was occupied by Japanese forces on January 2, Some , civilians were killed in February. It was after the many times when Manila was once again destroyed by war, when the city earned the moniker "The City of Our Affections".

This nickname was given by National Artist and writer Nick Joaquin , in reference to the spirit of resilience the city has had in the face of the constant wars that have razed it and also in repeatedly surviving and rebuilding despite being the second-most natural disaster prone city in the world.

In , President Elpidio Quirino moved the seat of government of the Philippines to Quezon City , a new capital in the suburbs and fields northeast of Manila, created in during the administration of President Manuel L.

With the Visayan-born Arsenio Lacson as its first elected mayor in all mayors were appointed before this , Manila underwent The Golden Age , [74] once again earning its status as the "Pearl of the Orient", a moniker it earned before the Second World War.

After Lacson's term in the s, Manila was led by Antonio Villegas for most of the s. Mayors Lacson, Villegas, and Bagatsing are collectively known as the "Big Three of Manila" for their contribution to the development of the city and their lasting legacy in improving the quality of life and welfare of the people of Manila.

During the administration of Ferdinand Marcos , the region of Metro Manila was created as an integrated unit with the enactment of Presidential Decree No.

The area encompassed four cities and thirteen adjoining towns , as a separate regional unit of government. Presidential Decree No. She started the rejuvenation of the city as she re-branded Manila as the " City of Man ".

During the martial law era , Manila became a hot-bed of resistance activity as youth and student demonstrators repeatedly clashed with the police and military which were subservient to the Marcos regime.

After decades of resistance, the non-violent People Power Revolution predecessor to the peaceful-revolutions that toppled the iron-curtain in Europe , led by Maria Corazon Aquino and Cardinal Jaime Sin , ousted the dictator Marcos from power.

From —, Mel Lopez was mayor of Manila. Lopez closed down numerous illegal gambling joints and jueteng. In January , Lopez padlocked two Manila casinos operated by the Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation PAGCOR , saying the billions it gained cannot make up for the negative effects gambling inflicts upon the people, particularly the youth.

In , Alfredo Lim was elected mayor, the first Chinese-Filipino to hold the office. He was known for his anti-crime crusades. Lim was succeeded by Lito Atienza , who served as his vice mayor.

Atienza was known for his campaign and city slogan " Buhayin ang Maynila " Revive Manila , which saw the establishment of several parks and the repair and rehabilitation of the city's deteriorating facilities.

He was the city's mayor for 3 terms 9 years before being termed out of office. Lim once again ran for mayor and defeated Atienza's son Ali in the city election and immediately reversed all of Atienza's projects [79] claiming Atienza's projects made little contribution to the improvements of the city.

The relationship of both parties turned bitter, with the two pitting again during the city elections in which Lim won against Atienza.

Lim was sued by councilor Dennis Alcoreza on over human rights , [80] charged with graft over the rehabilitation of public schools, [81] and was heavily criticized for his haphazard resolution of the Rizal Park hostage taking incident , one of the deadliest hostage crisis in the Philippines.

Later on, Vice Mayor Isko Moreno and 28 city councilors filed another case against Lim in , stating that Lim's statement in a meeting were "life-threatening" to them.

In , the National Historical Commission of the Philippines erected a 'comfort woman' statue along Roxas Boulevard , which made Japan express regret that such statue was erected in the city despite the healthy relationship between Japan and the Philippines.

In the elections , former President Joseph Estrada defeated Lim in the mayoral race. In , in line with President Noynoy Aquino 's administration progress, the city became the most competitive city in the Philippines, making the city the best place for doing business and for living in.

In the elections , Estrada narrowly won over Lim in their electoral rematch. Among such sites are the post-war Santa Cruz Building, Capitol Theater, El Hogar, old Magnolia Ice Cream Plant, and Rizal Memorial Stadium, among many others [88] [89] [90] Some of these sites were saved upon the intervention of various cultural agencies of government and heritage advocate groups against Estrada's orders.

Estrada, who was seeking for reelection for his third and final term, lost to Isko Moreno in the local elections. Estrada's defeat was seen as the end of their reign as a political clan, whose other family members run for various national and local positions.

Almost all of Manila sits on top of centuries of prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters of the Pasig River and on some land reclaimed from Manila Bay.

Manila's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since the American colonial times.

Some of the city's natural variations in topography have been evened out. As of [update] , Manila had a total area of Out of the five planned reclamation, only Horizon Manila was approved by the Philippine Reclamation Authority on December and was slated for construction in Under the Köppen climate classification system, Manila has a tropical savanna climate Köppen Aw , bordering closely on a tropical monsoon climate Köppen Am.

Together with the rest of the Philippines, Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Temperature extremes have ranged from Humidity levels are usually very high all year round, making the temperature feel hotter than it is.

Manila has a distinct dry season from late December through early April, and a relatively lengthy wet season that covers the remaining period with slightly cooler temperatures during the daytime.

In the wet season, it rarely rains all day, but rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons usually occur from June to September.

Swiss Re ranked Manila as the second riskiest capital city to live in, citing its exposure to natural hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, typhoons, floods and landslides.

Manila is hit with five to seven typhoons yearly. Following the aftermath of Typhoon Ketsana, the city began to dredge its rivers and improve its drainage network.

Both cities were cited as having poor management in garbage collection and disposal. The Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission is in charge of cleaning up the Pasig River and tributaries for transportation, recreation and tourism purposes.

Manila is a planned city. His design for the city was based on the City Beautiful movement , which features broad streets and avenues radiating out from rectangles.

The city is made up of fourteen city districts, according to Republic Act No. Manila's mix of architectural styles reflects the turbulent history of the city and country.

During the Second World War, Manila was razed to the ground by the Japanese forces and the shelling of American forces. After the liberation, rebuilding began and most of the historical buildings were thoroughly reconstructed.

However, some of the historic buildings from the 19th century that had been preserved in reasonably reconstructible form were nonetheless eradicated or otherwise left to deteriorate.

Manila's current urban landscape is one of modern and contemporary architecture. Manila is known for its eclectic mix of architecture that shows a wide range of styles spanning different historical and cultural periods.

Architectural styles reflect American, Spanish, Chinese, and Malay influences. Manila is also famed for its Art Deco theaters.

Unfortunately most of these theaters were neglected, and some of it have been demolished. The historic Escolta Street in Binondo features many buildings of Neoclassical and Beaux-Arts architectural style, many of which were designed by prominent Filipino architects during the American Rule in the s to the late s.

Many architects, artists, historians and heritage advocacy groups are pushing for the rehabilitation of Escolta Street, which was once the premier street of the Philippines.

Almost all of Manila's prewar and Spanish colonial architecture were destroyed during its battle for liberation by the intensive bombardment of the United States Air Force during World War II.

Reconstruction took place afterwards, replacing the destroyed historic Spanish-era buildings with modern ones, erasing much of the city's character.

Spanish-era shops and houses in the districts of Binondo , Quiapo , and San Nicolas are also planned to be restored, as a part of a movement to restore the city to its former glory and its beautiful prewar state.

Since Manila is prone to earthquakes, the Spanish colonial architects invented the style called Earthquake Baroque which the churches and government buildings during the Spanish colonial period adopted.

Modern buildings in and around Manila are designed or have been retrofitted to withstand an 8. According to the census, the population of the city was 1,,, making it the second most populous city in the Philippines.

District 5 is the least densely populated area with 19, Manila's population density dwarfs that of Kolkata 24, inhabitants per km 2 , [] Mumbai 20, inhabitants per km 2 , Paris 20, inhabitants per km 2 , Dhaka 29, inhabitants per km 2 , Shanghai 16, inhabitants per km 2 , with its most dense district, Nanshi, having a density of 56, inhabitants per km 2 , and Tokyo 10, inhabitants per km 2.

Manila has been presumed to be the Philippines' largest city since the establishment of a permanent Spanish settlement with the city eventually becoming the political, commercial and ecclesiastical capital of the country.

In the census, Manila became the first Philippine city to breach the one million mark more than 5 times of its population. The city continued to grow until the population somehow "stabilized" at 1.

This phenomenon may be attributed to the higher growth experience by suburbs and the already very high population density of city. The much larger Quezon City marginally surpassed the population of Manila in and by the census already has 1.

Nationally, the population of Manila is expected to be overtaken by cities with larger territories such as Caloocan and Davao City by The vernacular language is Filipino , based mostly on the Tagalog language of surrounding areas, and this Manila form of spoken Tagalog has essentially become the lingua franca of the Philippines, having spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and entertainment.

English is the language most widely used in education, business, and heavily in everyday usage throughout Metro Manila and the Philippines itself.

A variant of Southern Min , Hokkien locally known as Lan'nang-oe is mainly spoken by the city's Chinese-Filipino community. According to data provided by the Bureau of Immigration, a total of 3.

Crime in Manila is concentrated in areas associated with poverty, drug abuse , and gangs. Crime in the city is also directly related to its changing demographics and unique criminal justice system.

Illegal drug trade is a major problem of the city. From to , the city had the second highest index crime rates in the Philippines, with 54, cases or an average of about 9, cases per year.

MPD's crime solution efficiency also improved, wherein six to seven out of 10 crimes have been solved by the city police force. Religion in Manila [].

As a result of Spanish cultural influence, Manila is a predominantly Christian city. As of [update] , Roman Catholics were Members of Islam and other religions make up the remaining 1.

Manila is the seat of prominent Catholic churches and institutions. There are Catholic churches within the city limits; 63 are considered as major shrines, basilicas, or a cathedral.

Manila also has other parishes located throughout the city, with some of them dating back to the Spanish Colonial Period when the city serves as the base for numerous Catholic missions both within the Philippines and to Asia beyond.

Several Mainline Protestant denominations are headquartered in the city. Stephen's Parish pro-cathedral in the Santa Cruz district is the see of the Episcopal Church in the Philippines ' Diocese of Central Philippines, while align Taft Avenue are the main cathedral and central offices of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente also called the Aglipayan Church, a national church that was a product of the Philippine Revolution.

The indigenous Iglesia ni Cristo has several locales akin to parishes in the city, including its very first chapel now a museum in Punta, Santa Ana.

Evangelical , Pentecostal and Seventh-day Adventist denominations also thrive within the city. The headquarters of the Philippine Bible Society is in Manila.

Also, the main campus of the Cathedral of Praise is located along Taft Avenue. Binondo Church serves the Roman Catholic Chinese community.

Quiapo Church is the home to the iconic Black Nazarene which celebrates its feasts every January 9. Quiapo is home to a sizable Muslim population which worships at Masjid Al-Dahab.

Members of the Indian expatriate population have the option of worshiping at the large Hindu temple in the city, or at the Sikh gurdwara along United Nations Avenue.

Manila is a major center for commerce, banking and finance, retailing, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media as well as traditional media , advertising, legal services, accounting, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the Philippines.

Around 60, establishments operate in the city. The National Competitiveness Council of the Philippines which annually publishes the Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index CMCI , ranks the cities, municipalities and provinces of the country according to their economic dynamism, government efficiency and infrastructure.

The Port of Manila is the largest seaport in the Philippines, making it the premier international shipping gateway to the country.

The Philippine Ports Authority is the government agency responsible to oversee the operation and management of the ports.

Another port operator, the Asian Terminal Incorporated, has its corporate office and main operations in the Manila South Harbor and its container depository located in Santa Mesa.

Binondo, the oldest and one of the largest Chinatowns in the world, was the center of commerce and business activities in the city. Numerous residential and office skyscrapers are found within its medieval streets.

Plans to make the Chinatown area into a business process outsourcing BPO hub progresses and is aggressively pursued by the city government of Manila.

These buildings are mostly located along the Escolta Street of Binondo, which are all unoccupied and can be converted into offices.

Divisoria in Tondo is known as the "shopping mecca of the Philippines". Numerous shopping malls are located in this place, which sells products and goods at bargain price.

Small vendors occupy several roads that causes pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Diverse manufacturers within the city produce industrial-related products such as chemicals, textiles, clothing, and electronic goods.

Food and beverages and tobacco products also produced. Local entrepreneurs continue to process primary commodities for export, including rope, plywood, refined sugar, copra , and coconut oil.

The food-processing industry is one of the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city. The Pandacan Oil Depot houses the storage facilities and distribution terminals of the three major players in the country's petroleum industry, namely Caltex Philippines , Pilipinas Shell and Petron Corporation.

The oil depot has been a subject of various concerns, including its environmental and health impact to the residents of Manila. The Supreme Court has ordered that the oil depot to be relocated outside the city by July , [] [] but it failed to meet this deadline.

Most of the oil depot facility inside the 33 hectare compound have been demolished, and plans are put into place to transform it into a transport hub or even a food park.

Manila is a major publishing center in the Philippines. The Chinese Commercial News , the Philippines' oldest existing Chinese-language newspaper, and the country's third-oldest existing newspaper [] is headquartered in Binondo.

Manila serves as the headquarters of the Central Bank of the Philippines which is located along Roxas Boulevard. The flagpole west of the Rizal Monument is the Kilometer Zero marker for distances to the rest of the country.

The park was managed by the National Parks and Development Committee. The 0. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration , an attached agency of the Department of Tourism.

Kalesa is a popular mode of transportation for tourists in Intramuros and nearby places including Binondo, Ermita and Rizal Park.

Manila is regarded as one of the best shopping destinations in Asia. One of the city's famous shopping destinations is Divisoria , home to numerous shopping malls in the city, including the famed Tutuban Center and the Lucky Chinatown.

It is also dubbed as the shopping mecca of the Philippines where everything is sold at bargain price. Quiapo is referred to as the "Old Downtown", where tiangges , markets, boutique shops, music and electronics stores are common.

Many department stores are on Recto Avenue. Robinsons Place Manila is the largest shopping mall in the city. The building of the former Manila Royal Hotel in Quiapo , which is famed for its revolving restaurant atop, is now the SM Clearance Center that was established in As the cultural center of the Philippines, Manila is the home to a number of museums.

The famous painting of Juan Luna , the Spoliarium , can be found in the complex. The city also hosts the repository of the country's printed and recorded cultural heritage and other literary and information resources, the National Library.

Bahay Tsinoy , one of Manila's most prominent museums, documents the Chinese lives and contributions in the history of the Philippines.

The Intramuros Light and Sound Museum chronicles the Filipinos desire for freedom during the revolution under Rizal's leadership and other revolutionary leaders.

The Metropolitan Museum of Manila is a museum of modern and contemporary visual arts exhibits the Filipino arts and culture. Sports in Manila have a long and distinguished history.

The city's, and in general the country's main sport is basketball , and most barangays have a basketball court or at least a makeshift basketball court, with court markings drawn on the streets.

Larger barangays have covered courts where inter-barangay leagues are held every summer April to May. Whenever the country hosts the Southeast Asian Games , most of the events are held at the complex, but in the Games , most events were held elsewhere.

Manila also hosts several well-known sports facilities such as the Enrique M. Other collegiate sports are still held at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex.

Professional basketball also used to play at the city, but the Philippine Basketball Association now holds their games at Araneta Coliseum and Cuneta Astrodome at Pasay ; the now defunct Philippine Basketball League played some of their games at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex.

Previously a widely played sport in the city, Manila is now the home of the only sizable baseball stadium in the country, at the Rizal Memorial Baseball Stadium.

The stadium hosts games of Baseball Philippines ; Lou Gehrig and Babe Ruth were the first players to score a home run at the stadium at their tour of the country on December 2, The stadium, which was previously unfit for international matches, had undergone a major renovation program before the match.

Manila celebrates civic and national holidays. Since most of the city's citizens are Roman Catholics as a result of the Spanish colonization, [] most of the festivities are religious in nature.

Astorga then Vice Mayor of Manila on June 24, It has been annually commemorated under the patronage of John the Baptist , and has always been declared by the national government as a special non-working holiday through Presidential Proclamations.

Each of the city's barangays also have their own festivities guided by their own patron saint. The mayor is the chief executive, and is assisted by the vice mayor, the member City Council, six Congressmen, the President of the Association of Barangay Captains, and the President of the Sangguniang Kabataan.

The members of the City Council are elected as representatives of specific congressional districts within the city. The city, however, have no control over Intramuros and the Manila North Harbor.

Both are national government agencies. The barangays that have jurisdictions over these places only oversee the welfare of the city's constituents and cannot exercise their executive powers.

Manila has a total of 15, personnel complement by the end of The committee has not yet decided on the federal capital and states that they are open to other proposals.

The mayor is Francisco " Isko Moreno " Domagoso, who previously served as the city's vice mayor. The vice mayor is Dr.

The mayor and the vice mayor are term-limited by up to 3 terms, with each term lasting for 3 years. The city has an ordinance penalizing cat-calling since , and is the second city in the Philippines to do so after Quezon City passed a similar ordinance in Manila, being the seat of political power of the Philippines, has several national government offices headquartered at the city.

Planning for the development for being the center of government started during the early years of American colonization when they envisioned a well-designed city outside the walls of Intramuros.

The strategic location chosen was Bagumbayan, a former town which is now the Rizal Park to become the center of government and a design commission was given to Daniel Burnham to create a master plan for the city patterned after Washington, D.

These improvements were eventually abandoned under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L. A new government center was to be built on the hills northeast of Manila, or what is now Quezon City.

Several government agencies have set up their headquarters in Quezon City but several key government offices still reside in Manila.

However, many of the plans were substantially altered after the devastation of Manila during World War II and by subsequent administrations.

The city, as the capital, still hosts the Office of the President, as well as the president's official residence. Congress previously held office at the Old Congress Building.

In , due to declaration of martial law, Congress was dissolved; its successor, the unicameral Batasang Pambansa , held office at the new Batasang Pambansa Complex.

In May , the Senate transferred to a new building it shares with the Government Service Insurance System at reclaimed land at Pasay.

Manila is made up of barangays , [] which are grouped into Zones for statistical convenience. Manila has the most number of barangays in the Philippines.

Development of public housing in the city began in the s when the United States rule over the Philippines. Americans have to deal with the problem of sanitation and concentration of settlers around business areas.

Business codes and sanitation laws were implemented in the s. During this period until the s, new communities were opened for relocation.

In , the national government completed several medium-rise houses for Manila residents whose slum community was destroyed by a fire in The construction of these new in-city vertical housing projects was funded by a loan from the Development Bank of the Philippines and the Land Bank of the Philippines.

One of the more famous modes of transportation in Manila is the jeepney. Patterned after U. Army jeeps , these have been in use since the years immediately following World War II.

They were replaced by the UV Express. All types of public road transport plying Manila are privately owned and operated under government franchise.

On a for-hire basis, the city is served by numerous taxicabs , "tricycles" motorcycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of the auto rickshaw , and " trisikads " or " sikads ", which are also known as " kuligligs " bicycles with a sidecars, the Philippine version of pedicabs.

In some areas, especially in Divisoria, motorized pedicabs are popular. Spanish-era horse-drawn calesas are still a popular tourist attraction and mode of transportation in the streets of Binondo and Intramuros.

Manila will phase out all gasoline-run tricycles and pedicabs and replace them with electric tricycles e-trikes , and plans to distribute 10, e-trikes to qualified tricycle drivers from the city.

Development of the railway system began in the s under the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, when Line 1 was built, making it the first light rail transport in Southeast Asia, though despite the name "light rail", Line 1 operates as a Light Metro running on dedicated right-of-way.

Line 2 on the other hand, operates as a full-metro heavy-rail system. These systems are undergoing a multibillion-dollar expansion.

Line 3 runs from Taft Avenue, where it intersects with the EDSA station on Line 1, northward through the eastern part of the city, eventually meeting with Line 2 at Araneta Center-Cubao Station before eventually terminating in the north of the city at North Avenue Station, with plans to extend the line to link up with Roosevelt Station at the northern terminus of Line 1.

The main terminal of the Philippine National Railways lies within the city. One commuter railway within Metro Manila is in operation.

The line runs in a general north—south direction from Tutuban Tondo toward the province of Laguna. The Port of Manila , located at the western section of the city at the vicinity of Manila Bay, is the chief seaport of the Philippines.

In , Forbes magazine ranked Manila the world's most congested city. However, such projects have yet to make any meaningful impact, and the traffic jams and congestion continue unabated.

The Metro Manila Dream Plan seeks to address these urban transport problems. It consists of a list of short term priority projects and medium to long term infrastructure projects that will last up to The Maynilad Water Services took over the west zone of which Manila is a part.

It now provides the supply and delivery of potable water and sewerage system in Manila, [] but it does not provide service to the southeastern part of the city which belongs to the east zone that is served by Manila Water.

Electric services are provided by Meralco , the sole electric power distributor in Metro Manila. The Manila Health Department is responsible for the planning and implementation of the health care programs provided by the city government.

It operates 59 health centers and six city-run hospitals, which are free of charge for the city's constituents. The city is also planning to put up an education, research and hospital facility for cleft-palate patients, [] [] as well as establishing the first children's surgical hospital in Southeast Asia.

Manila's healthcare is also provided by private corporations. The national health department operates the San Lazaro Hospital, a special referral tertiary hospital.

DOH also operates the Dr. The city has free immunization programs for children, specifically targeted against hepatitis B, Hemophilus influenza B pneumonia, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, measles, mumps and rubella.

As of , a total of 31, children age one and below has been "fully immunized". Valisno de Siojo Dialysis Center in , and was inaugurated as the largest free dialysis facility in the Philippines.

The University of the City of Manila Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila located at Intramuros, and Universidad de Manila located just outside the walled city, are both owned and operated by the Manila city government.

The University of the Philippines , the premier state university, was established in Ermita, Manila. It moved its central administrative offices from Manila to Diliman in and eventually made the original campus the University of the Philippines Manila — the oldest of the constituent universities of the University of the Philippines System and the center of health sciences education in the country.

The University Belt refers to the area where there is a high concentration or a cluster of colleges and universities in the city and it is commonly understood as the one where the San Miguel, Quiapo and Sampaloc districts meet.

Each of the colleges and universities found here are at a short walking distance of each other. Another cluster of colleges lies along the southern bank of the Pasig River, mostly at the Intramuros and Ermita districts, and still a smaller cluster is found at the southernmost part of Malate near the city limits such as the private co-educational institution of De La Salle University , the largest of all De La Salle University System of schools.

The Division of the City Schools of Manila , a branch of the Department of Education , refers to the city's three-tier public education system. It governs the 71 public elementary schools, 32 public high schools.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the capital city of the Philippines. For the region, see Metro Manila.

For other uses, see Manila disambiguation. Capital and chief port of the Philippines. Capital and highly urbanized city in National Capital Region, Philippines.

Capital and highly urbanized city. Pearl of the Orient [1]. Location within the Philippines. Main articles: History of Manila and Timeline of Manila.

Main article: Geography of Manila. See also: List of earthquakes in the Philippines. Iglesia ni Cristo 1. Protestantism 1. Buddhism 1.

Other 1. Main article: Tourism in Manila. Further information: Public holidays in the Philippines. See also: List of hospitals in Metro Manila.

Main article: List of people from Manila. See also: List of sister cities in the Philippines. The rest of the place south of the street belongs to Pasay.

New York Times. February 5, Retrieved March 3, Manila, modernized and elevated to the status of a metropolis by American engineering skill, was before Pearl Harbor a city of , population, contained in an area of fourteen square miles.

Archived from the original on March 9, Retrieved November 30, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology.

November 14, Archived from the original PDF on June 24, Retrieved May 16, Retrieved November 24, Highlights of the Philippine Population Census of Population.

Retrieved June 20, Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved November 2, Quezon City, Philippines. Retrieved January 1, Philippine Daily Inquirer.

October 7, Commission on Audit. Archived from the original on November 4, Retrieved November 4, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Retrieved April 9, Brookings Institution. January 22, Retrieved April 12, The Philippine Star. Retrieved January 10, July 14, Retrieved January 24, Concept News Central.

December 23, Archived from the original on January 10, Retrieved January 9, Manila Science High School. Light Rail Transit Authority.

Archived from the original on January 9, May 19, Retrieved February 28, Retrieved April 6, Long Finance. March Retrieved April 5, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society.

The Origin of the Name Manila". The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal. Philippine Medicinal Plants.

Retrieved August 20, World Marine Species Database. Manila: Bureau of Public Printing. Looking Back, Volume 1. Anvil Publishing Inc. Retrieved August 21, VIII, p.

The Arthur H. Clarke Company. Your Country and Mine. Mangrove Ecology, Silviculture and Conservation. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 26 : 72— Government of Brunei Darussalam.

Archived from the original on April 15, In Bob Dye ed. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Singapore : NUS Press. Retrieved August 30, By Tyron Judes D.

The Secretary at War to Mr. Secretary Conway. London: British Library. Guttenburg Free Online E-books.

This gives some twelve hundred Spanish families or establishments, exclusive of the religious, who in Manila numbered at least one hundred and fifty, the garrison, at certain times, about four hundred trained Spanish soldiers who had seen service in Holland and the Low Countries, and the official classes.

He reformed the greatly disorganized military force, establishing what was known as the "Regiment of the King," made up very largely of Mexican soldiers.

He also formed a corps of artillerists composed of Filipinos. Archived from the original on December 6, Retrieved December 6, Lipski, with P.

Mühlhaüsler and F. Duthin Walter de Gruyter. Retrieved January 8, Otis to the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands, January 4, Manila My Manila.

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Lesbian threesome shower variant of Southern MinHokkien locally known as Lan'nang-oe is mainly White girls eat black cum by the city's Chinese-Filipino community. Archived from the original on Emma mae hd 5, The University Belt refers to the area where there is a high concentration or a cluster of colleges and universities in the city and it is commonly understood as the one where Bodybuilderporn San Miguel, Quiapo and Sampaloc districts meet. Retrieved January 8, Archived from the original on November 8,

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